Poultry Farming In Brazil
Poultry farming is the breeding of birds in general, but the term is more specifically reserved for the breeding of domestic birds.
It is one thing starting a poultry farm and another thing being successful with your poultry business.
If you are passionate about livestock, then I encourage you to venture into poultry farming in Brazil. There are many successful poultry farmers in Brazil whose success stories are a source of inspiration for entrepreneurs.
SELECT THE SECTOR THAT SUITS YOU
There are so many areas in the poultry industry that one can focus on and make real money. This includes the following:
Meat production (Broilers breeding)
Egg productions (Layers breeding)
Poultry feed production.
Meat and egg processing and marketing.
Chicken breeding (Hatchery)
Poultry equipment manufacturing.
Many people consider poultry business to be made up of only breeding broilers and layers. As you have seen above, it goes beyond what you think.
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This kind of entrepreneurship follows certain peculiar operational principles for one to make a real profit. Should you ignore these fundamental principles, you will be hit by unfortunate loses.
That is why I implore you to study the poultry business in Kenya a little bit before you jump into operation.
If you know how to play your cards and run your business carefully, there are chances you will succeed with a significant return on investment.
Are you wondering the best ways to start your poultry farm in Brazil?
IS POULTRY FARMING PROFITABLE IN BRAZIL
Starting a poultry farm in Brazil is one of the most profitable business ideas in 2019 for young entrepreneurs. Designing and planning an innovative and lucrative poultry business will depend on several factors, including the location, breed of chicken, the scope of your business, and even the scale of the business venture.
You cannot also overlook competition and environmental factors which may affect how profitable your poultry business will be in Brazil.
So, yes, poultry farming is profitable in Brazil, but you need to consider the following:
- Land acquisition
- Construction of the unit
- Procurement of poultry equipment
Another thing is that you will make much more money by rearing broilers in Brazil than layers. That notwithstanding, it is your business plan and marketing strategy that will determine your overall success in the business.
Breed Type Selection
These domestic birds include the following:
- Guinea fowl
Before you select any of the poultry birds listed above, you need to consider what you want to achieve in the course of your business. Some poultry birds are better raised for their eggs while others are good for meat production.
However, chicken production is the most common in most part of Brazil. This is because fowls can be reared for both meat and eggs under most circumstances.
In most cases, people only think about chicken when they hear about poultry.
SCALE OF POULTRY FARMING IN Brazil
In Brazil, this kind of business is run on either small, medium, or large scale.
The small scale poultry farm is where about 1 to 8000 birds are raised.
The medium-scale poultry farm is where there are about 8001 to 100,000 birds are raised.
Large scale poultry farming is where more than 100,000 birds are raised.
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Housing system depends on your poultry breeds and farming method. Below are few tips to use while building suitable houses for your poultry birds.
Firstly a suitable poultry housing is very important for successful poultry farming business. Poultry birds can be raised in both free range and indoor production systems. In case indoor production system, it is very crucial to manage the environment. Poultry need accurate management and environment for better production and welfare. Whether the poultry raised in indoor or outdoor system, make sure the well management, ventilation, lighting, temperature and litter condition.
For a small scale poultry production, portable houses are best and this is an organic method. But for sustainable commercial poultry production, planned and proper designed poultry housing is very essential to keep the poultry birds healthy and productive. And this will increase the farming production and income.
The poultry house has to be well ventilated. Well ventilation keeps the bird healthy and productive.
Make a suitable system for entrancing sufficient amount of fresh air and light inside the house.
Try and make the house north to south faced.
In the case of making numerous houses, the distance between one house to another house should be about 40 feet.
Before bringing the chick into the farm, clean the house and the entire farm area properly.
Make deep liter clean regularly.
You can use some cheap materials like wooden material or rice ban for making liter.
Keep the feeding and watering equipment in proper distance from each other according to the number of birds and farming system. And always clean all types of equipment everyday.
The house must have all required facilities for poultry birds.
The housing system commonly used in poultry farming are;
Extensive System: range and fold unit
Semi intensive system: Standard semi intensive unit and straw yard
1. Deep liter,
2. wire and slated floor,
3. battery cage
4. straw yard
Environment & Temperature
A good poultry housing system must have to be weather proof. Weather proof poultry housing system will keep the poultry birds safe from the adverse weather conditions such as cold, rain, wind, hot sun etc.
Environment & Temperature
A good poultry housing system must have to be weather proof. Weather proof poultry housing system will keep the poultry birds safe from the adverse weather conditions such as cold, rain, wind, hot sun etc. The poultry housing system should have the facilities of providing warmth, particularly during brooding period and winter season. The house must have to be well ventilated. Must have to have the facilities of protecting the poultry birds from harmful predators. Different types of innovative poultry housing design are used in poultry farming business. It may be just a simple house, mobile or portable house or fixed houses with permanent foundation.
An adult chicken contains about 105° to 107° Fahrenheit temperature in it’s body. The chickens can maintain their body temperature and grow very well in a thermoneutral zone of 65° to 75° Fahrenheit. If the temperature is under or higher than this zone, then you must have to control the temperature in any way. Chickens reduce their food consumption rate in hot weather. They have no sweat glands. As a result, the growth of poultry will be less in hot weather condition. They begin panting at or above 85° Fahrenheit temperature. Drink water frequently to keep them free from dehydration. It is very difficult to combine between high temperature and high humidity, because in those conditions panting does not make the body of chicken cool. In some countries, hot weather is very harmful than cold weather. You must have to control hot weather strictly for broiler poultry farming, as they are very fast growing bird and can’t tolerate high temperature. You have to keep sufficient cool drinking water inside the poultry housing, during summer season. During winter season, use heaters for heating the poultry housing system. Most of the farmers do not use heaters to heat the house and depend on the body warmth of poultry birds for heating. The poultry birds consume more feed in winter season, because they need more energy to keep their body warm and keep them free from cold. Most farmer provide the poultry more food instead of heating the house. Because feeding more feed costs less than heating the house. However, you can use electric heaters or gas brooders for the purpose of heating the poultry housing area. Keep a thermometer inside every poultry house for measuring the daily temperature, and always follow the weather forecasts.
Ventilation & Lightening
Light is also a vary important element for poultry farming. And poultry birds become very sensitive to light. Light helps the poultry birds to be productive, finding food and simulating them for reproduction.
Ventilation & Lightening
Well ventilation inside poultry housing system play a very vital role to control the indoor environment. It removes moisture, heat, gas etc. and brings fresh air inside the poultry house. You can design ventilation system in both natural and artificial (mechanical) methods. Most farmers use natural ventilation for poultry production. In natural ventilation system, you can open wide windows and side curtains to ensure the entrance of fresh air to make the house cold during summer season (hot weather). A pair of vent in the roof of poultry house, will help to remove the hot air. A roof of at least six feet height from the floor, is suitable for this purpose. Controlling natural ventilation is more difficult than artificial method. In winter season, make proper ventilation system to preserve heat and remove moister and gas (like ammonia) from the house. Most farmer close the windows and side curtains during winter season, because warm air holds more moisture than cold air. However, you should allow small amount of air inside the house with high moisture once or twice a day. In artificial ventilation system you can fully control the movement of air inside the poultry housing system. But this system is not suitable for free range poultry housing.
Light is also a vary important element for poultry farming. And poultry birds become very sensitive to light. Light helps the poultry birds to be productive, finding food and simulating them for reproduction. Besides light, the poultry birds also need dark period for keeping good health and producing melatonin hormone (which is very important for immune function). Almost all types of poultry birds require 8 hours of darkness period and 16 hours presence of light. Almost all poultry producer use only the natural light for lighting the poultry house. Darkness is helpful for some fast growing broiler species, and helps them for reducing leg disorders and build their body frame. However, poultry chicks require 24 hours light daily after hatching for finding food and water pot. Some commercial broiler poultry producer use long lighting period to encourage the bird consuming more food. This results very fast growing of broilers. Broiler poultry birds do not eat food and drink water in the dark. If the poultry birds are kept in darkness for some moment, then they will be more active in the light than continuous lighting period (and they will eat more food). This is a good practice, and it keeps the poultry birds healthy. In accordance with natural lighting, you have to use artificial light. In small scale poultry rearing, you can use 14 to 16 hours of lighting period for layer poultry (where artificial lighting is needed for 4 to 6 hours daily depending on the season). But the lighting period should not be more than the longest day of the year. Maintain the lighting period for layer poultry farming very carefully, otherwise they will lay egg very soon or stop laying eggs. Use incandescent or fluorescent bulb for the purpose of artificial lighting. Fluorescent bulbs are very expensive than incandescent bulb. But fluorescent bulbs are very energy efficient and long lasting. However, use bulb according to your choice and demand. In the case of incandescent bulb use a 60 watt bulb for each 200 square feet area, and use a wide reflector always to maximize the light. Clean the bulbs regularly. You can use an automatic controller for maintaining a regular lighting period. Because if you forget to switch on the light manually, then it can hamper the egg and meat production of your poultry birds. Always use waterproof sockets inside the poultry housing system. Maintaining a lighting period inside the poultry house in morning is very effective than lighting in the evening. Adjust the lighting period according to the weather condition and season. Where there is no electricity or load shedding is very high, use batteries, heriken or solar panel for lighting the poultry house.
For successful poultry farming and getting desired production, litter management is very important. Usually the litter is used for covering the floor of poultry housing system which may be made of concrete, wooden or earthen
Litter absorbs the moister of closet and dilutes the manure. It also works as the bed for the poultry birds. Rice hulls and soft wood shavings are the common materials used by the farmers around the world. Besides this, you can use some other materials for litter making purpose such as recycled newspaper, sand, dried wood fiber, chopped pine straw, peanut hulls etc. Small scale poultry farmer also use some other materials such as hay and straw as poultry litter. Whatever you use, always try to use those materials which are healthy for poultry and compost well. A good litter contain about 20% to 30% moisture and depth about 2 to 4 inch. Ventilate the pulse very well, and it will help to remove moisture from the litter. High moisture in litter is very harmful for poultry health. Wet litter causes some problem like sores, and blister on poultry birds and produce ammonia gas which hampers the respiratory system of poultry. Use aluminum sulfate or hydrated lime to reduce ammonia gas from the litter. You can use the litter again and again after drying the materials properly. But don’t use the used litter if any disease affect in the poultry farm. After selling the poultry, remove the used litter from poultry house by machine or hand. This litter can be used as a good manure in the agricultural land for crop cultivation. In some area poultry manure and litter is very valuable and an extra source of earning cash. Dry poultry manure contain 3.84% nitrogen, 2.01% phosphorus and 1.42% potassium. In a word, poultry manure is very suitable for make soil fertile and it can be used in organic farming system.
Poultry feeds includes
Wheat: Wheat is one of the best grains to be used as poultry feed ingredients. For this reason you should include a certain amount of wheat in the poultry feed ratio. During the wheat harvesting season, you can feed the poultry birds as mash or as scratch feed. You can also use wheat as a poultry feed throughout the year.
Barley: Generally barley is not as delicious like wheat and oats. But it contains fiber and a great source of fat.
Corn: Corn can be very effective grain for your poultry birds. You can feed whole, cracked or grinded. You can feed ripe corns to your hens.
Millet: It has good advantages as poultry feed. You can use millet in growing, laying and fattening ratio. Millet is easily digestible and help to increase body temperature.
Flax: It is suitable for high amount of protein in your poultry feed. You can use small amount of flax in the feed mixture.
Skim Milk and Butter Milk: They are very useful for all kinds of poultry birds. Especially for the young chicks and laying hens. Skim and butter milk play a vital role to get high quality eggs for hatching. And it’s also reliable source of protein.
By Products Of Grain: By products of grains have a great health value and suitable for feeding the poultry birds. Buy various types of by products if grains are available in the shop where poultry feed are prepared or sold. It’s price is comparably higher than any other poultry feed ingredients.
Fish Oil: Fish oil is a dependable source of vitamin A and D. Main.
Poultry is very sensitive and may be infected by diseases easily. Generally, they suffer various types of viral, bacterial, fungal, nutritional and parasitic diseases. Proper vaccination is a must for keeping your your birds diseases free, healthy and productive. So vaccinate the birds timely. If somehow, disease occurs in the farm, meet a vet doctor as soon as possible and listen to his advice.
One of your biggest costs will be feeding your birds and your business plan for poultry must clearly describe this.
How many birds do you intend to keep? Hundreds, possibly thousands of birds require regular feeding, how will you manage this? How do you intend to obtain feed supplies? Who is going to be your supplier and do they deliver or must you collect the feed?
You need to spell out clearly the procedures in place to make sure the birds are kept healthy.
The management setup of the company should be described here. Identify the major roles and who will fill them. Use the OGS sample business plan for a poultry farm to create the perfect management section.
For the senior positions, include a short bio of the person and explain why they are ideal for the post. An organizational chart may be useful here, but a simple list of people and roles is also okay.
Staffing And Man power is not labor intensive if the use of technology is employed. Being a small scale poultry you don’t need so many staff, what you need is a manager and accountant. Either way, your manager can also assume the duty of the accountant too in order to save cost. This individual oversees the day to day running of the business.
Egg Productive Poultry Breeds (Layers)
The chickens raised for egg production are known as layer chickens. Almost all types of commercial layer poultry breed start laying eggs within their five to six month of age. They continuously lay about 275 to 300 eggs per year. Some strain lay about 330 eggs per year. Some highly egg productive breeds are leghorn, minorca, ancona, fayoumi, isa brown, babcock, star cross, lohmann etc.
Comparatively weights less than other poultry breeds.
Gain sexual maturity earlier.
Less egg incubating trend.
Start laying eggs within their five to six month of age.
Converting efficiency of food to egg is very high.
Contain less fat in their body.
Egg producing power is very high.
Lay big sized eggs.
Meat Productive Poultry Breeds (Broilers)
This type of poultry birds are used for only meat production purpose. Their meat become very soft and tasty. They weights about 2 to 2.5 kg within their 7 to 8 weeks of age, consuming about 4 kg food. They become suitable for marketing within 8 weeks. The world’s most popular breeds of broiler poultry are starbro, plymouth rock, cornish, sussex, brahma, hy-line, rose broiler, asil, cochin etc.
Comparatively weights much than other poultry breeds.
Don’t incubate their eggs.
Food to meat converting efficiency is very high.
Grow very fast.
Contain much fat in their body.
Egg producing power is very low.
They become very big sized.
Dual-Purpose Poultry Breeds
Popular dual-purpose breeds for both meat and egg production are new hampshire, australorp, rhode island red, plymouth etc. Characteristics of this types of poultry birds are described below.
This types of poultry breeds are of medium sized.
They may have trend for hatching eggs.
Lay less eggs than egg productive breeds.
They contain proper ratio of fat in their body.
Grows very well.
Gain maturity very fast.
Various types of poultry diseases can cause serious loss in the poultry farming business. Diseases occurs due to lack of proper care and management, inadequate nutritious feeding and some other factors. Generally diseases can be defined as ‘changes of general or usual physical condition’. Almost all types of animal can be affected by different types of disease in their lifetime. Poultry birds are not exception, they also get affected by numerous diseases. This types of disease can suffer the poultry health seriously. If you want to establish a profitable commercial farm or want to raise a few poultry birds on your backyard, then you must have to keep your birds free from all types of diseases. Usually poultry producers face some problems during establishing a new poultry farming business such as lack of capital, location, housing, food management, diseases etc. Among all those problems, poultry diseases are most important to consider. Disease can destroy the whole farm and you might loss money seriously. The meat and egg production of poultry can suddenly decrease due to various types of diseases. Many poultry birds die every year throughout the world, due to various types of diseases. As a result of this, producers loss a huge amount of money. In a word the main reason of financial damage of poultry farming business is various types of diseases.
Classification of Poultry Diseases
There are many types of poultry diseases. The major types of poultry diseases are described below.
Contagious Diseases: Some diseases spread from affected birds to healthy birds. This types of poultry diseases are known as contagious diseases. Contagious diseases are of 3 types, which are described below.
Viral Disease: This types of diseases caused due to various types of virus. Newcastle, chicken pox, gumboro, mareks, duck plague etc. are viral poultry diseases.
Bacterial Diseases: The diseases which are caused by bacteria are known as bacterial diseases. Cholera, pullorum etc. are some bacterial poultry diseases.
Fungus Diseases: This types of diseases attack the poultry birds through fungus. Spargilosis, fevus, thrash, micotoxicosis etc. are fungus diseases of poultry.
Parasitic Diseases: The organism which live in other animal’s body are known as parasites. This organisms creates some diseases while living in other animal’s body. This types of diseases is known as parasitic diseases. Micoplasmosis, colibesilosis, steptocackich, coccidiosis, espegilosis, worms, lice etc. are parasitic poultry diseases.
Malnutritious Diseases: If you don’t feed your birds well balanced and nutritious feed, then they might suffer by malnutritious diseases. Malnutritious diseases are of two types.
Vitamin Deficiency Diseases: The diseases which caused due to lack of vitamins are called vitamin deficiency diseases.
Mineral Deficiency Diseases: Some diseases attack the poultry birds due to lack of sufficient amount of various types of minerals. This types of diseases are known as mineral deficiency poultry diseases. Mineral play a vital role in keeping the poultry birds healthy. So they become sick and live unhealthy life due to mineral deficiency diseases.
Other Poultry Diseases: The poultry birds also get affected by some other miscellaneous diseases like cannibalism, egg bound etc. Although cannibalism and egg bound are not specifically poultry diseases.
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